Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Top Term Papers Writing Services to Avoid Choices

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Friday, May 15, 2020

Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Systems Theory And Its Impact...

The purpose of this essay is to provide an overview of Bronfenbrenner s ecological systems theory and its impact on early childhood development. The researcher will review key literature to present a background of the ecological approach. Furthermore, the researcher will discuss how to implement the ecological approach to develop a quality learning environment for early childhood education (i.e., for children 0-8 years). A summary will conclude the essay. Ecological Systems Theory Background Bronfenbrenner s ecological systems theory describes â€Å"a child’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment† (Paquette Ryan, 2001, p. 1). Notably, Bronfenbrenner was the cofounder of the head start program. Most recently, researchers have changed the name of ecological systems to bioecological systems to show the importance of a child’s own biological environment. The child’s biology was found to be a fundamental factor of their environment and also development (Paquette Ryan, 2001). The theory is composed of complex environmental levels, which influences the child’s overall development. To clarify, Bronfenbrenner developed three levels or systems, which includes (a) microsystem, (b) mesosystem, and (c) exosystem (Paquette Ryan, 2001). The microsystem covers those elements a child has direct interactions with, such as their family, school, or daycare . The mesosystem is comprised of the child’s indirect environment, suchShow MoreRelatedUrie Bronfenbrenner and his Ecological Systems Theory Essay example1063 Words   |  5 Pagesequipped to meet the needs of the children. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory â€Å"looks at children’s development within the context of the systems of relationships that form their environment.† (MORRISON, 2009) This theory describes multifaceted tiers within the environment, where each layer has a specific influence upon a child’s development. Within Bronfenbrenner theory there are five interconnecting ecological systems: I. Microsystem: this tier is the closest one to the child and consistsRead MoreThe Bronfenbrenner Theory Essay1228 Words   |  5 PagesThe composition of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory cultivate a framework to study the numerous connections between the developing child from mother and father relationships to the environment, community settings, cultural influences and financial factors. The four levels of environmental stimuli the micro- , meso- , exo- and macrosystems, each intermingled within one another representing degrees of personal connections. Change and constancy are mediated by the passage of time. The chronosystemRead MoreThe Role Of Heredity And Environment On Learning Theory1009 Words   |  5 PagesEnvironment in Learning Theory With regards to human development, is it determined by heredity or the environment? What is the importance of the answer to this question? Several developmental psychologists have researched this question and provided possible theories to answer it. This paper will take a look at three leading theorists on the subject-Bronfenbrenner, Piaget and Vygotsky. By means of personal reflection into my own learning experience, I will analyze which theory best describes my understandingRead MoreSocial, Family And Environmental Influences On Human Development Essay1554 Words   |  7 Pages Human Development †¢ Introduction †¢ Cultural context Social influence (Vygotsky) †¢ Physical environment (Vygotsky) †¢ Family influence (Bowlby) †¢ Social and family environment (Bronfenbrenner) †¢ Conclusions †¢ References â€Å"You cannot predict the outcome of human development .All you can do like a farmer create the conditions under which it wellbeing flourish(Robinson.K.2001)This essay will discussed social , family and environmental influences on human development ,across in whole life-spanRead MoreThe Impact Of Divorce On Childhood Development2370 Words   |  10 Pages The Impact of Divorce on Childhood Development Based on the Ecological Systems Theory Gianna Marie Helmer, LPN Excelsior College Abstract The first three years of a child s life are the most significant for growth and development, both mentally and physically. Young children perceive situations and events that occur in their environment differently depending on their developmental stage. Urie Bronfenbrenner is a psychologist that came up with the Ecological Systems TheoryRead MoreWhat Role Do Relationships Play in Developing Positive Learning Environments?1726 Words   |  7 PagesWhat role do relationships play in developing positive learning environments? Relationships play a very influential role in the development of a positive learning environment, as the relationship between the child’s immediate environment and settings all need to co-exist and work collaborative together, to form a positive learning environment. Relationships need to be formed, as it provides for the child with consistent support and can assist the child to develop skills and understandings they needRead MoreThe Three Developmental Processes Are Biological1361 Words   |  6 Pagesthe physical development of an individual, such as perceptual and motor capacities and changes in the body’s size, while the Cognitive process focuses on the cognitive development [memory, creativity, language, and knowledge]. The Socioemotional developmental process is focused on the changes in the individual’s psychosocial development, so it covers changes involving self-sufficiency and self-understanding, along with their morality and emotional communication. E ach period of development includes piecesRead MoreAnalysis Of Eriksons Theory On Early Childhood Education1212 Words   |  5 Pagesmade an impact on early childhood education. Knowing the teoriests and the ideas that they had is vital in the education profession. Erik Erikson Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. - Erik Erikson Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a Germon born developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of humanRead MoreThe Importance Of A Childs Form Of Attachment And The Effects It Can Have On Their Development2031 Words   |  9 Pagesimportance of a child’s form of attachment and the effects it can have on their development. I will also look in depth at Uri Bronfenbrenner’s work on the Ecological systems of human development to gain insight into how social and cultural influences can impact behaviour. Furthermore I will look at a range of behaviours that Tracy has shown, as a result of her family upbringing and how Susie’s drug misuse may have had an impact on their attachment and led to Tracy showing signs of resilience. I will discussRead MoreTe Whariki1308 Words   |  6 PagesWhariki: Early Childhood Curriculum in which we follow as a framework for teaching in New Zealand. This report is going to cover the three broad age groups Te Whariki is based upon. It will explain the principles and strands of Te Whariki and the impact it has on a developing child. It will describe the purpose of Te Whariki and discuss ways it is used by early childhood education services throughout New Zealand. It will describe Te Whariki’s support for bi-culturalism throughout the early childhood

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Poetry Analysis Ode On a Grecian Urn Essay - 1145 Words

The twenty-four old romantic poet John Keats, â€Å"Ode on a Grecian Urn† written in the spring of 1819 was one of his last of six odes. That he ever wrote for he died of tuberculosis a year later. Although, his time as a poet was short he was an essential part of The Romantic period (1789-1832). His groundbreaking poetry created a paradigm shift in the way poetry was composed and comprehended. Indeed, the Romantic period provided a shift from reason to belief in the senses and intuition. â€Å"Keats’s poem is able to address some of the most common assumptions and valorizations in the study of Romantic poetry, such as the opposition between â€Å"organic culture† and the alienation of modernity†. (O’Rourke, 53) The irony of Keats’s Urn is he likens†¦show more content†¦For me, the ten lines of this stanza is a blissful remainder that love only comes like a thief in the night. Indeed, when one least expects it. In the second stanza, the speaker beholds a piper joyfully playing under the tress for his lover to find him with song. â€Å"Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on; not to the sensual ear, but, more endeared. The use of imagery of the senses is effective here. For I consider poetry to be more musical in nature than literary text. The speaker claims to be hearing melodies emanating from the urn, which for me the sound transmission from the urn correlates to the finite aspects of fleeting love. While the nature of art of the urn seems to me to represent the exquisiteness and infinity of the universe. Indeed, the sounds of silence from art is akin to vastness of space and time. â€Å"She cannot fade, though, thou hast not thy bliss,† (line19). Keats is asking the readers to not grieve for him. Because, her beauty will not diminish over time it is everlasting. In the third stanza, the speaker praises the urn for its eternal youth and zeal. Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed your leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu.†(lines 21-22) He admires the trees that cover the lovers for they will not loose their leaves over the changing seasons. For this he it seems is grateful and feels happy. Moreover, the use of word spring is of key importance for spring signifies the start of a new seasonal cycle ofShow MoreRelatedâ€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty† Essay767 Words   |  4 PagesOf the five odes written by John Keats, this ode was written to show the beauty of love through a work of art. This work of art is a Grecian Urn, one side adorned with a woman being pursued by a â€Å"bold lover† and on the other a priest leading a heifer to be sacrificed. The beauty of this poem is given in five stanzas of iambic pentameter with a two part rhyme scheme, giving the poem a sense of a two part structure and, furthermore, two meanings just as there are two sides of the urn. The manifestRead MoreHow Does Keats Express His Aesthetic Vision in ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’?1542 Words   |  7 PagesHow does Keats express his aesthetic vision in ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’? John Keats once said regarding Lord Byron that â€Å"he (Byron) describes what he sees, I describe what I imagine†. Keats is a typically Romantic poet in the way in which he uses the fluid boundaries of imagination within his poem to formulate his aesthetic vision which is projected in ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’. Pope notes that the etymology of ‘aesthetics’ derives from the Greek meaning ‘things perceptible to the sense’ and ‘sensoryRead MoreJohn Keats: The Next Shakespeare Essay829 Words   |  4 Pagesbe remembered. However, contrary to his belief, Keats is still remembered today, so much so that his poetry is put into our text books. Throughout Keats’s poems in our literature book, there are several ways he writes his poems. John Keats uses the forms of imagery, personification, figures of speech, and sound structure in his poetry. First of all Keats uses the structure of imagery in his poetry, but much more so in the poem, â€Å"When I have fears that I may Cease to Be.† A prime example of the usageRead More Physical Value in Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay1381 Words   |  6 PagesPhysical Value in Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn The poetry of John Keats contains many references to physical things, from nightingales to gold and silver-garnished things, and a casual reader might be tempted to accept these at face value, as simple physical objects meant to evoke a response either sensual or emotional; however, this is not the case. Keats, in the poem Ode Upon a Grecian Urn, turns the traditional understanding of physical objects on its head, and uses them notRead MoreKeats Poems : Homer, Fears, Nightingale, And Urn 733 Words   |  3 Pages The Power of Keats Poems (An Analysis of Keats Poems called Homer, Fears, Nightingale, and Urn) John Keats was a romantic poet in the early 1800s. He lived from 1975 to 1821, a rather short lived life and died at the young age of just twenty-five. Although Keats died at a young age, the years that he lived he created a huge impact on society with his poems. Keats developed an interest in poetry and reading at a young age, setting him up to become an avid poet. John Keats expressed one majorRead MoreJohn Keats : The Five Senses, Reality Departures, And Nature1628 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"If Poetry comes not as naturally as Leaves to a tree it had better not come at all† (biography). John Keats was an English-born poet who was known for his sonnets, romances, and epics. He was a well-known romantic poet who was criticized because of his style of poetry. In his poems, Keats uses frequent themes such as death, the five senses, reality departures, and nature. As a romantic poet, John Keats uses imagery and emotion based themes as way to display his beliefs in his poetry. Born inRead More Truth in Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn and Cummings since feeling is first1808 Words   |  8 PagesTruth in Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn and Cummings since feeling is first Truth remains a mysterious essential: sought out, created, and destroyed in countless metaphysical arguments through time. Whether argued as being absolute or relative, universal or personal, no thought is perceived or conceived without an assessment of its truth. In John Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn and E.E. Cummings since feeling is first the concern is not specifically the truth of a thought, but rather, the generalRead MoreA Classical View Of The Romantic Movement1877 Words   |  8 PagesHypothesis: John Keats’ Odes were heavily influence by Classical ideologies which related to the wider philosophy of the Romantic Movement. This essay will apply a Classical perspective to John Keats’ Odes. I will examine how John Keats was inspired by the ideologies of the Greeks and Roman mythology. John Keats based his Odes on Roman myths and Greek artefacts; he used these to explore wider themes that relate to Greek Philosophy. This essay will show how Keats related the wider philosophy of theRead MoreTo Autumn, by John Keats Essay887 Words   |  4 Pages The poem â€Å"To Autumn† by John Keats was written with a sense of him describing his girl as a person, of whom he loved very dearly. This was the last great ode he was able to write before he died (Prince). This poem was written on crisp, fall day in September (Flesch). After Keats had composed this poem, he wrote a letter to his friend calling his work a genesis (Flesch). Even though this poem was written for Keats lover, it also described how as the seasons are changed to fall, summer still has aRead More Essay on Art in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man1577 Words   |  7 Pagesof art may be Romantic, but because his world is no longer the world of the Romantics he has to see art more as a fundamental validation of his own being than as a communication of a special vision. Two aspects of Romanticism figure into this analysis of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. First, the Romantics defining belief in some connection between the human spirit and some higher purpose, and their belief in arts capacity to serve as the vehicle to connect the human with the divine

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Agricultural Reform in Australia-Free-Samples-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss about the Agricultural Reforms in Australia. Answer: Introduction Agriculture or primary sector is the basis of growth in any economy. Without ensuring stable food supply, no nation can focus on industrial development. Apart from delivering food, agricultural sector also works as suppliers of raw materials for agro based industries. This is the reason nation always focuses on the reform of agricultural sector. The paper analyzes the reform or agro policy in Australia. In most of the nation, reform includes active government intervention to secure the interest of farmers. However, in Australia though significance given to this primary sector but the approach is slightly different. A published news report focusing on this aspect is evaluated in light of economic theories and implication. Essence of the Story Growth and development of primary sector is usually subject to government support and intervention. Government offers huge subsidy to motivate the farmers. Minimum price support policy is also common for agricultural products. Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a policy designed by European Union to guide its member nation towards a developed agricultural sector. Under this, scheme farmers receive allowance or subsidy for continuing farming (Queensland Country Life 2017). Farmers in Ireland and United Kingdom are largely benefitted from this kind of subsidy. Apart from direct subsidy, different learning program for improving productivity of agro products have been conducted by the government and farmers eagerly participates in those programs. CAP also covers areas such as promotion and marketing of product, sustainable development of rural areas and at the same time protect the environment (Swinbank and Daugbjerg 2017). The scenario is quite different in Australia. Here, the agricultural sector is left alone. The government intervention is second lowest for Australia among the OECD countries (Tangermann 2015). The sector is believed to perform the best in the market environment. The farmers Australia is continuing their operation without any direct support from the government. The farmers not only meet the domestic food demand but also managed to produce enough so that excess can be exported. Australia earns significant amount of foreign exchange from its agro exports. This gives confidence to the policymakers for leaving the sector independent. Economic theories and Concept The evaluation of agricultural reform policy of adapting a free market strategy needs analysis of both a regulated and unregulated free market situation. Agriculture with a regulated market One common form of agricultural support is setting a minimum price for the agricultural products. The market scenario with minimum support price is described below Figure 1: Market with government support price (Source: As created by the Author) P1 is the unregulated price in the market. The minimum price is set above the equilibrium price. In the new price Q1 quantity is demanded whereas Q3 quantity is supplied. Therefore, as seen from the figure, at this price there is a greater supply, exceeding its demand as shown in the diagram. This excess supply has to be purchased by government to ensure high income to the farmers. This is an inefficient policy it adds additional burden to government budget and results in fiscal deficit. Considering the consumers side, their sufferings is two folds. First, they face a high price for food crops. Because of relatively inelastic nature of crop demand, they have to continue purchasing even with a high price (Botterill 2016). This hurts the demand for other products. On the other hand, to purchase the excess supply government often highly taxed the citizens. This reduces their disposable income and may create trouble for making even a nominal purchase (McLachlan 2013) Agriculture with unregulated market Free market is independent of government regulation. The demand and supply forces work efficiently with pricing mechanism. There is neither excess supply nor excess demand. Optimal price and quantity are determined independently (Van Zanten et al. 2014). When there is no need of government intervention then the government can utilizes its resources to other needed sector of the economy. In addition, here food crops are available at an affordable price. People are able to make purchase from other goods when they free from the burden of unnecessary high price or high tax rate. This is the situation that Australian agriculture experiences. The market alone is efficient in maintaining profitability in the food market and allows the farmers a stable income (Keohane and Olmstead 2016). This does not mean the nations with agricultural support always run with inefficiency. In countries like UK or Ireland, despite of a subsidized agricultural sector farmers still giver active responses to the market price. Hence, the policy decision of whether to keep a regulated agricultural market or unregulated free market depends on the specific structure of the economy (Cai 2015). Recommendation Agriculture in Australia has maintained is stability relying on free market forces. A disadvantage of the free market policy is that sellers value their own interest much here. In doing so, if the farmers increase the production of cash crops because of economic importance then common people may suffer with food shortage. This possibility needs to be considered by the policymaker. While leaving the market unregulated the minimum, supply of food-crops should be ensured. Another area where the government can intervene is increasing the productivity of the agriculture. Land is the main input in agricultural production. Given limited supply of land, increase in productivity is the only way of increasing supply of agricultural product. Government should make investment to help the farmers purchasing advanced equipment. Training program can be arranged to provide the farmers training about advanced farming techniques. Conclusion The analysis made above concludes that Australia is in support of free market reform policy for its agricultural sectors. CAP support policy often runs with inefficiency in terms increasing food prices for buyers and increasing deficit in government budget. Unregulated market in Australia is free from these shortcomings. However, some aspects still need government support. In contrast to direct subsidy or minimum price support indirect assistance can be made by making investment in innovative technologies, arranging training programs for farmers. Free market strategy with improved farming technology is the most desirable state of agriculture in the nation References Botterill, L.C., 2016. Agricultural policy in Australia: deregulation, bipartisanship and agrarian sentiment.Australian Journal of Political Science,51(4), pp.667-682. Cai, X., 2015. Minimum prices in a model with search frictions and price posting. Economics Letters,135, pp.61-64. Keohane, N.O. and Olmstead, S.M., 2016. Introduction. InMarkets and the Environment(pp. 1-10). Island Press/Center for Resource Economics. McLachlan, R., 2013. Deep and Persistent Disadvantage in Australia-Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper. Queensland Country Life. (2017).Ag system differences an interesting study. [online] Available at: https://www.queenslandcountrylife.com.au/story/4841904/ag-system-differences-an-interesting-study/ [Accessed 18 Aug. 2017]. Swinbank, A. and Daugbjerg, C., 2017. The Changed Architecture of the EUs Agricultural Policy Over Four Decades: Trade Policy Implications for Australia. Tangermann, S., 2015. Are past OECD analyses of agricultural policy reforms relevant to current policy and market settings?.Issues in Agricultural Trade Policy, pp.25-68. Van Zanten, B.T., Verburg, P.H., Espinosa, M., Gomez-y-Paloma, S., Galimberti, G., Kantelhardt, J., Kapfer, M., Lefebvre, M., Manrique, R., Piorr, A. and Raggi, M., 2014. European agricultural landscapes, common agricultural policy and ecosystem services: a review.Agronomy for sustainable development,34(2), pp.309-325

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Contemporary Directions in Marketing an Example of the Topic Business Essays by

Contemporary Directions in Marketing by Expert Prof Nelly | 01 Aug 2016 Globalization of world economy is making a great impact on the way marketing strategies are carried out worldwide. For at least twenty years now there has been vast growth in global advertising, which is targeted primarily at an average global consumer, irrespective of the culture he belongs too. By means of global advertising, multinational companies attempt to generate standard brand images in all countries. Need essay sample on "Contemporary Directions in Marketing" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed In the meantime, they hope to save financial and marketing resources through relying on the uniformity of strategies and addressing to only a few international advertising agencies, responsible for the creative part. However, the faster the pace of globalization is getting, the more doubt appear that such a unified target consumer does exist and the more emphasis is laid on a more local perspective. The current paper seeks to summarize the recent research in the area, published after the year 2000, so as to consider the changing share in the use of standardization and localization vehicles as approaches in global marketing. The title of the article Advertising Localization Overshadows Standardization (2002) by Ali Kanso and Richard Nelson is suggestive in itself revealing the main tendency to the localization of action in global marketing. The researchers conducted a survey among the American and non-American advertising executives in the Swedish and Finnish subsidiaries of multinational corporations to find out what is the ratio of standard and local approaches and whether cultural sensitivity depends on the nationality of the manager. Overall, the authors distinguish between three schools of thought as far as the issue of global marketing is concerned: standardization, localization, and compromise. While the proponents of standardization claim that the world is becoming a common marketplace, which leads to the uniformity of an average consumer worldwide, their opponents who cling to localization state that advertisers have to consider insurmountable barriers among countries. They aredifferences in cul ture, taste, media infrastructure, and economic development, and consumers' resentment of international corporations' attempts to homogenize their differing tastes and cultures. Given these considerations, it becomes necessary to design specific advertising programs to achieve impact in local markets Finally, there has been a growing group of scholars who believe that none of the previously mentioned approaches is either possible or effective. Thus, they try to redefine the basic concepts by differentiating between prototype and pattern standardization. Under prototype standardization, as it has been historically understood, the international firm in various countries would use the same advertisements or campaigns with the only differences being appropriate translations and a few idiomatic changes. On the other hand, under pattern standardization--a trend that seems now to be a more flexible form of standardization--the campaign, including the overall theme and individual components, is originally designed for use in multiple markets (Kanso&Nelson ,2002) The authors of the study seem to support the compromise approach in its pattern version and confirm their opinion by the relevant findings. Thus, for example, of the 73 firms that use standardized messages in varying degree, 40 s aid they either modify copy and illustrations to fit their markets, or they change all materials except the central theme. Twenty-five respondents claimed they translate messages and make idiomatic changes, four reported literal translation of messages, and four others indicated they use standardized messages in the original language of the country where corporate headquarters are located. Based on the distinction that was reported in the literature between two types of standardization, the findings suggest that subsidiaries tend to lean more toward the use of pattern standardization than the use of prototype standardization. Other findings show the importance of cultural factor. Thus, the advertising executives evaluated the main obstacles they face in the following way (5 being of the highest importance): cultural differences, differences in consumers' lifestyles, language diversity, variations in worldwide market infrastructure, and government regulations of advertising media These results show that following prototype standardization would be a risky and inflexible approach. The managers are becoming more culturally aware (Americans who were accused of being insensitive follow the tendency to the same degree). The study by Nan Zhou and Russell W. Belk Chinese Consumer Readings of Global and Local Advertising Appeals (2004) consider the same controversy between localization and globalization but using a different method, which they call reader-response approach. The authors justify the choice of method by the discrepancy, which often occurs between the intended message of advertising and the way consumers actually understand it. As a result of their research, the scholars found out that it is largely due to a group of goods, which approach to stick to because the implications are different. The outcome shows that global appeals are read as signaling beauty, status, and cosmopolitanism, whereas local appeals are read as evoking Chinese cultural values or nationalistic feelings ( Zhous why the first approach is acceptable in the promotion of the so-called status or luxury goods. Average Chinese consumers cannot afford many foreign products, but they can still envy and yearn for the higher sta ndards of living of Western countries. This has been termed "imagined cosmopolitanism. Consumption of Western things is in fact perceived as separation of those who are successful from those who are not. Beauty and technology industries are those win the Chinese consumers by applying global appeals. On the other hand, Chinese tend to stick to their authentic national values while buying such goods as food, medicines, non-alcoholic beverages and so on. These products seem to be perceived as belonging to the realm of national conventions, which have strong historical roots, whereas everything foreign is seen as stylish and beautiful but at the same time superficial. There is another peculiar finding which was received as a result of the experiment. The point is, in many cases, people do not recognize which brand is home and which is local. This confusion proves that the terms global and local no longer pertain to the spatial or even national sphere but only reflect the choice of marketing strategy. Finally, the study conducted by Susan H.C. Tai and Y.H. Wong Advertising decision making in Asia: "Glocal" versus "Recall" approach focuses on the whole Asian region, constituted by such countries as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. The focus of the article is on decision-making and to what extent it is made by the international office or is shifted to the local one. The key concept which runs through the whole paper is a newly-coined blending glocalization, which to my mind continues the trend, which was traced in the above studies. As the authors claim, the concept of "Glocalization" started with the realization that Asia was not 'westernizing' but in fact was 'modernizing'. The key to the modernization of consumer markets is their ability to adapt incoming influences and blend them into the fabric of their identity, not adopt the foreign influence wholesale. Globalization is much more than the simplistic "think global, act local" but requires identifying the degree to which needs and the stimuli which trigger them are universal or local.The method, which was used to conduct the research, is the following one: structured questionnaires were mailed to marketing directors at the headquarters of the multinationals or their subsidiaries in the markets of the above-mentioned countries. On the basis of the results, the researchers developed a scale method of assessment, which takes into account the degree of localization and standardization. Thus, four decision-making approaches are distinguished: Global Approach (Centralized Decision Process, Standardized Advertising Approach). A firm with a higher degree of centralized decision making is more likely to adopt a standardized advertising approach. The example of the company who follows this strategy is the Swiss company L'Oreal S.A., whose main reasons for the centralized process are to have consistent offers available to consumers worldwide and to keep both advertising agencies and clients working more closely together. Local Approach (Decentralized Process, Differentiated Approach). The companies are localized as far as advertising is concerned, but the subsidiary needs to gain final approval from their headquarters (Tai total demand and market share vary from market to market. Thats; why local subsidiaries have the right to decide what marketing strategies to follow.Between the two extreme approaches, there are two, which can be considered as compromised ones. Regal Approach (Centralized Process, Regional Approach). The "Regal" approach is made up of "red" (regional) and "cal" (local); that is, it uses a local adaptation on a regional basis (Tai&Wong, 2002) There can be given an example of Carlsberg beer, which runs a corporate image campaign in Asia and carries out worldwide sponsorship activities. It means that the strategy is up to the headquarters, whereas the tactics are left to the local subsidiaries. Glocal Approach (Decentralized Process, Standardized Approach). This approach is a combination of the "Glo" (global) and "cal" (local) approaches. The headquarters develops global campaigns for its major brands and the local offices may or may not follow these proposals because they are responsible for their own profit and loss accounts. The headquarters has declared that advertising standardization is not a compulsory company policy, but a consequence of their joint headquarters-distributor decision making. This approach is successfully applied by such known companies as Coca-Cola and Henkel, which rely on the local budget most of all. The reviewed studies, which focus on the issue of standardization and globalization of advertising on the world market may vary in approach but have much in common in the findings. First, it is evident that standardization proper is scarcely possible. Even if such term is applied, the shift is from the prototype to pattern standardization is traced. Second, the prevailing majority of companies prefer a mixed variant to any extreme bias to either standardization or localization as modern conditions demand extra flexibility as far as marketing strategies are concerned. The creation of such indicative blendings as globalization and regal reflects an important trend in global marketing, which seeks to take into account a wider number of criteria. Third, barriers to standardized advertising programs continue to be very high. Managers of subsidiaries perceive cultural considerations, differences in consumers' lifestyles, variations in market infrastructure, and government regulations to be major impediments. Fourth, a general paradox about globalization is repeated on the marketing level: in an increasingly globalizing world, the national and cultural identity is getting increasingly important. Thats why the cultural aspect should no way be ignored even by global monsters like Coca-Cola. Fifth, geographical closeness doesnt guarantee the possibility of the unified approach for the whole region (like Sweden and Finland), Implementing regionally standardized campaigns in neighboring countries seems to be more a bother than a benefit when stumbling upon such varying media infrastructures and clashing message considerations. Sixth, in the rapidly developing economies, notions of status, cosmopolitanism, fashion, modernity, and beau ty are more apt to be changed by advertising that are more culturally ingrained notions of national identity, national pride, food, face, family, filial loyalty, and respect for the elderly. Overall, the tendency towards flexibility, cultural sensitivity and compromise is being demonstrated, which shows that global economy is entering the stage of maturity. Reference: Buckley, Peter J., and Pervez N. Ghauri. .2004, "Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises." Journal of International Business Studies , vol.35, no.2, p. 81+. Kanso, Ali, and Richard Alan Nelson. 2002,"Advertising Localization Overshadows Standardization." Journal of Advertising Research , vol.42, no.1, pp. Onkvisit, Sak, and John J. Shaw. 1999,"Standardized International Advertising: Some Research Issues and Implications." Journal of Advertising Research , vol.39, no.6, pp. Tai, Susan H.C., and Y.H. Wong. 2002, "Advertising Decision-Making in Asia: "Glocal" versus "Recall" Approach." Journal of Managerial Issues , vol.10, no.3,pp. 318+. Zhou, Nan, and Russell W. Belk.2004, "Chinese Consumer Readings of Global and Local Advertising Appeals." Journal of Advertising, vol. 33, no.3, pp.63+

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Free Essays on Religions In America

In the American society today there is a mix of all different religions. Today America’s religion is pluralistic meaning just that. There are a whole bunch of religions practiced in the same society. All of the combined dimensions of religious freedom contribute to the diversity of religious belief and expression in the U.S. There are a bunch of different religions, and three major religions in America today are Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. These three religions have played a major role in shaping American culture, and way of life. Throughout history Jewish people have combined ordinary and extraordinary religion in basically the same way Native Americans have blended community life, religious practice, and relationships with the natural, social and political world. This mixing of the elements of extraordinary and ordinary religion has resulted in the upholding of a unique Jewish identity. Although subject to the influence of various cultures surrounding groups of Jews, this has set them apart in many countries and cultures. There are four different types of Jews in America today they are Orthodox Jews, who follow basically everything the old ancient ways, and the Conservative Jews who practice Pantheism (which means God is present in all things). There are also the Hasidic Jews and the Reform Jews. All of these different groups practice their own different thing and when they cam to America they had their ideas passed along throughout our culture. We see this everyday even when we walk down the streets. They are families of Jews just walking to their Sunday function, with their yam micas on. They won’t really use any electricity or cars or any modern technology on this day. If we go to the supermarket we see food that is marked kosher for them. So that they know the food is alright to eat for their way of life. All of these little things add up and give them a little place they have built in our American culture.... Free Essays on Religions In America Free Essays on Religions In America In the American society today there is a mix of all different religions. Today America’s religion is pluralistic meaning just that. There are a whole bunch of religions practiced in the same society. All of the combined dimensions of religious freedom contribute to the diversity of religious belief and expression in the U.S. There are a bunch of different religions, and three major religions in America today are Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. These three religions have played a major role in shaping American culture, and way of life. Throughout history Jewish people have combined ordinary and extraordinary religion in basically the same way Native Americans have blended community life, religious practice, and relationships with the natural, social and political world. This mixing of the elements of extraordinary and ordinary religion has resulted in the upholding of a unique Jewish identity. Although subject to the influence of various cultures surrounding groups of Jews, this has set them apart in many countries and cultures. There are four different types of Jews in America today they are Orthodox Jews, who follow basically everything the old ancient ways, and the Conservative Jews who practice Pantheism (which means God is present in all things). There are also the Hasidic Jews and the Reform Jews. All of these different groups practice their own different thing and when they cam to America they had their ideas passed along throughout our culture. We see this everyday even when we walk down the streets. They are families of Jews just walking to their Sunday function, with their yam micas on. They won’t really use any electricity or cars or any modern technology on this day. If we go to the supermarket we see food that is marked kosher for them. So that they know the food is alright to eat for their way of life. All of these little things add up and give them a little place they have built in our American culture....

Monday, February 24, 2020

War on Terror Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

War on Terror - Essay Example and all of the countries it trades with. The federal government, in what some might term a ‘knee-jerk’ reaction to the attack, declared a ‘war on terror’ to justify the military initiative de jour and the spending of unprecedented amounts of money on questionable programs and ventures in an effort to ‘provide security’ to its citizens. The terrorist attacks of Sept. 11 were on U.S. soil but resulted in severe repercussions regarding not just national economy. On that day and for about a year and a half prior, the major economies of the world were teetering on the edge of at least recession conditions and many were close to a full-scale depression. The attacks prevented any perceived or real economic upturns that were predicted given the factors present at that time. The event destroyed lives and property, increased government spending at a time when the country could ill afford the excessive expenditures and squelched corporate and consumer confidence which further slowed the economy and hindered the recovery efforts. The events lasted over a period of a couple of hours but its affects are still being felt all over the world. The heightened insecurity regarding terrorist acts and its effects on the economy worldwide continues to give worry to investors and businesses which only serve to further cripple the economi es of most countries. The attacks of Sept. 11 also had an instantaneous negative economic influence on the financial and corporate sectors worldwide. Many companies either closed or scaled back which caused an increase of unemployment and a resulting decrease of the tax base. This lack of consumer, corporate and government monetary resources was not good news for countries that depend upon exporting products to the U.S. for economic stability such as the Asian ports located in Thailand and Singapore. Regions of the world that